# www.scantips.com

## Understanding Flash Guide Numbers, plus GN Calculator

Flash intensity falls off with distance, described by the Inverse Square Law. Guide Number (GN) is a simple numerical method used to determine Exposure of Direct Flash for Manual Flash Power Levels, to automatically deal with the Inverse Square Law (ISL), making the Manual flash exposure math be trivial.

Guide Number = Distance × fstop (one set of values that are known to give a proper exposure)

f/stop = Guide Number / Distance (aperture for any other distance)

Distance = Guide Number / fstop (distances for any other fstop)

It's very accurate too, if the known GN and distance are accurate.

So, the idea is that correct exposure for Guide Number 100 (the GN for your selected ISO and flash head zoom) is f/10 at 10 feet or f/5 at 20 feet or f/2 at 50 feet. Note that increasing the shutter time exposure does Not affect flash exposure (except for HSS), but it does increase exposure of any ambient light, which is another available tool that can be a plus or minus.

This Guide Number relationship works because the brightness of a flash declines 1 EV with (√2 × distance), but the amount of light admitted through a circular aperture increases 1 EV with the (f-number / √2), canceling the √2's to make the Guide Number be one simple multiplication.
Guide Number = Distance × fstop
The Inverse Square Law is named for the square root (√22 = 2), where double the distance is 1/4 the power (1/4 EV), but also, opening the aperture two stops (f-number / 2 = 4 EV), so this same cancellation occurs in Guide Number math for any power of √2.
Bottom line: If both the Guide Number and the distance are known accurate, then the Guide Number method is quite accurate exposure for a manual power direct flash. It is just the physics of the numbers.

The distance is the distance from flash to subject (is Not about the camera position unless the flash is on the camera). The reference base is a known accurate Guide Number for one situation (with the specified ISO and flash head zoom mm), from which other situations can be calculated. There are also other ways: we might use metered TTL, or a handheld flash meter, or just trial and error worked well enough (for one flash) with the digital LCD preview. In the old days using flash bulbs, guide number was all we had. Every package of flash bulbs had Guide Number info printed on it (for a typical reflector). The concept is still very valid and useful, and is still a fundamental for understanding flash. Even if you always only use TTL metering of flash, the calculator can be useful to show sample capabilities of your flash at the same settings.

Guide Number is a good tool to determine Exposure of Direct Flash with Manual Flash Power Levels. Calculating with Nominal f/stop numbers is a small factor, generally close enough, worst case is within 0.1 EV, but you might remember a few commonly used precise values, like that f/11 is actually f.11.314.

The full details explaining use of guide numbers are below the calculator. I've never seen another GN calculator that offered these additional features.

### GN Calculator Features:

• Convert to a New ISO (from stated for default GN)
• Convert to a New flash power level
• Option C matches BOTH Aperture and Distance with ISO and power level, for "Total Exposure"
• Can compute Fill Flash level (at the subject distance).
• Shows distance span of exposure range
• Shows nearest nominal stop, including thirds
• Even calculates HSS flash mode (on third page)
• Multiple Ganged equal flashes
• Uses precise internal camera setting values instead of nominals.

### GN Notes:

• Direct bare Manual flash mode only. Accuracy depends on your first Full Power GN being known and accurate, for the same ISO and flash ZOOM mm you will be using (see GN chart in flash manual, and also below).
• Guide Number and distance units entered can be for feet or meters (just be consistent with GN and distances). Results are in the same units. Distance is from flash to subject.
• GN is for ONE flash, but can be recalculated if ganging multiple equal flashes (see next page if Not equal GN).
• Don't select half stops if your gear does third stops. Half stops are flagged here with *½
• THREE ways to use this calculator: Modes A or B are the ordinary basic Guide Number calculations, but C can be a very useful Total Exposure for a specific situation. The calculator only computes direct flash exposure. It does not compute any ambient exposure, but see use of Fill flash in bright ambient.

## Convert GN Distance Units

Old Guide Number

Convert GN from Feet to Meters
Convert GN from Meters to Feet

Your user manual for the flash should contain a Guide Number chart (a sample chart is below). The GN chart shows various GN for each zoom setting and each power level setting. The initial GN entered here must be that Full Power GN for the zoom setting that you will use. But then you can also specify any new ISO change that you will use.

The Guide Number and distance units can be either feet or meters, so long as you are aware and consistent with it. The results will be in the same units.

A Biggie: Shutter speed does not affect flash exposure (which is a relatively instantaneous duration), but shutter speed (with flash) cannot be set faster than the camera shutter's Maximum Sync Speed (sync for shutter to be open for the flash occurrence, typically around 1/200 second maximum).

## Guide Number Calculator

Full Power Guide Number: at Zoom mm and ISO:
To New ISO
Num Equal flashes Ganged as one:
Compute as Fill flash level: EV
To New Flash Power Level
1/1,  0 EV
1/2, -1 EV
1/4, -2 EV
1/8, -3 EV
1/16, -4 EV
1/32, -5 EV
1/64, -6 EV
1/128, -7 EV
 +2/3 EV +1/2 EV +1/3 EV +0 EV -1/3 EV -1/2 EV -2/3 EV

Results
will use
Third stops
Half stops (flagged as *½)
Full stops
Conventional Guide Number computes Either distance at A or f/stop at B

A. For Aperture   Distance
Exposure is ±

B. Or for Distance   F/stop
Exposure is ±

C. Shifting gears. Another idea is to instead assume that BOTH of the aperture A and distance B fields are the actual desired settings goal.

Insufficient flash exposure is corrected with more flash power, smaller f/stop number (wider aperture), higher ISO number, or shorter distance.

Excessive flash exposure is corrected with less flash power, larger f/stop number (stopped down aperture), lower ISO number, or longer distance.

Neither of the camera's Exposure Compensation or Flash Compensation will affect Manual flash power. They will affect TTL flash power (on modern cameras) and ambient exposure (there may be settings offer options).

Shutter speed is Not a factor of flash exposure (but shutter speed will affect ambient exposure and HSS flash exposure). Shutter speed must not exceed camera's Maximum Sync Speed (typically about 1/200 second maximum, but again, regardless if shutter speed is 1/200 second or 60 seconds, it does not affect the flash exposure, which itself is relatively instantaneous).

Manual flash cannot tolerate Auto ISO variations, because Manual flash power level cannot react to ISO. TTL flash power and ambient exposure do react to ISO changes.

Doubling Power level or ISO increases exposure 1 EV.
Doubling Guide Number increases flash exposure 2 EV.
Doubling f/stop number or distance reduces flash exposure 2 EV.

Calculator Limits on the range of settings:

Power level: Full 1/1, 0 EV  to  1/128, -7 EV
F/stop: f/0.5  to  f/90, -15 EV
ISO: 1.56  to  819200, -19 EV

You can change the settings manually for corrections, or if appropriate, use the calculated buttons to do it automatically. However, if a calculated button value is limited at its end value, then it can't go any further (so then change some numbers to a different combination, or use another button).

Guide Number assumes Manual flash mode (where YOU set the flash power manually). If using TTL flash automation, the way to adjust metered flash exposure is by using Flash Compensation to adjust the metered goal (for example -1 EV Flash Compensation to reduce TTL flash exposure). Because, TTL automation adjusts flash power level to achieve its metered values, which overrides all other attempts of flash control. Note too, that Flash Compensation or Exposure Compensation do not affect Manual flash power level.

## Calculator Usage

Distance Units: You can work in units of either feet or meters if very consistent about units (same unit for both guide number and distance). All shown distances will be in those same units. Since there are 3.28 feet in one meter, the GN in feet is simply 3.28 times the GN in meters. Again, see the guide number chart in the flash manual for flashes that zoom (an example chart is below). The charts show GN in units of both feet and meters. Be sure you understand which zoom setting that GN applies to. Guide Number depends on speedlight flash head zoom, which often zooms (in smaller steps) with the lens zoom. Lens zoom does not affect GN, but flash head zoom certainly does.

First enter the Full power Guide Number for the actual flash head zoom mm you will be using (the GN chart in the flash manual shows these various GN for different speedlight zooms, and is very probably for ISO 100). GN values are usually stated like 30/98. The smaller number is GN for distance in meters, larger number is GN for distance in feet.

This can be a simple basic GN calculator, offering the two choices (called modes A and B in the calculator) for computing either aperture or distance by simply dividing the GN, computed simultaneously, but independently, not related to each other. Use either/or, A or B. The manufacturer's Guide Number Chart in the flash manual is the source of the Guide Numbers for each speedlight zoom or power level.

However, choice C is a special option here to enter Both aperture and distance as your goal of desired settings. Then setting Power or ISO to correct that exposure are choices to achieve that goal, but there are four option possibilities (including changing goals of distance or aperture). You can always change any of the settings for a different result. Note that this method C is also how the GN chart is used manually without a calculator (see example of Use of GN Chart below). We compute the GN that the situation needs (fstop × distance), and then (for the ISO 100 chart) adjust it for ISO 100 so we can find that GN in the chart to determine the required power and zoom settings to use. The GN charts offer full stops of exposure, but this calculator (and probably your gear) can work in third stops.

Calculating for Fill Flash Level in bright sun is possible, but GN does Not consider ambient lighting. In the same way that the camera computes TTL Flash compensation based on ambient, this Fill level is computed from what would have been a full flash exposure. It can be a main stream procedure in bright ambient, but computing using the proper ambient exposure settings in Option C (using an aperture that results in shutter speed near Maximum Shutter Sync Speed, perhaps 1/200 second, and ISO 100 at perhaps f/11 or f/13 for bright sun) can compute the Fill flash level at that specified subject distance. This Fill Flash factor effectively increases the actual Guide Number so to speak (because it computes a lower fill level), and -1 2/3 EV or -2 EV are commonly used values for usual best balance. Caution: Using a slower shutter speed or higher ISO will stop down f/stop more, which reduces effective speedlight flash power.

Shutter speed is a factor for HSS flash mode (or for ambient light), but shutter speed does not matter to speedlight flash mode, except for a speedlight, shutter speed cannot exceed the cameras Maximum Sync Speed (camera models vary, but this is often around 1/200 second). The speedlight flash is very fast capable to freeze motion, so (just to mention some speed) a shutter speed of maybe 1/160 second should be fine (the speedlight duration will be faster). Up to that limit, you might use a faster shutter speed just to keep out any ambient light. This is a camera shutter issue, and NOT a flash issue. There can be a small risk that fastest Maximum Sync speed (some cameras offer 1/250 second or faster) could very slightly truncate highest Full power level illumination, but any lower speedlight power level would be much faster. Even several seconds shutter speed is fine, but not exceeding Maximum Sync Speed (see Maximum Sync Speed.

Guide Number applies to Direct Manual Flash, with camera Manual mode (both ISO and aperture are set and fixed) at the specified zoom mm value. Si it is NOT point&shoot, but it all works rather well, except ...

Some obvious Procedural Errors are:

• Flash exposure for direct flash is correct at only One distance (a fundamental basic of Inverse Square Law). That's why we have Guide Number, it easily accounts for Inverse Square Law, so that knowing correct exposure at one distance can calculate other distances or apertures. But still, objects and backgrounds more distant WILL BE underexposed, and closer foregrounds WILL BE overexposed.
• Lighting modifiers added on flash head changes the light (domes, diffusers, filters, umbrellas, softboxes, whatever ... and bounce flash too). You might determine a new GN when using such gadgets, but situations likely vary. Guide Number specification for studio lights probably applies only to their one furnished reflector, or maybe to bare flash? (very few say what it means, check it yourself). Guide Number is more frequently used with camera speedlights, and less so with studio flash since they often use a softbox or umbrella or grid or something added.

Studio lighting for portraits is a very different subject, but typically the frontal Fill light is set to measure (at the subject) maybe 1 EV or 2 EV less than the Main light, as the desired Lighting Ratio. The Background light might be set very low (black) or very bright (white), but often is set to about a normal exposure. The Hair light varies with subject hair color, but maybe +1 EV for dark hair or -1 EV for light hair and judge it by eye in first test picture (see a standard studio flash portrait setup). In the studio with a few flash units working (likely each with a different light modifier), a light meter will be extremely useful to Set and Know what each flash is actually doing. Shutter speed is only for the ambient light, and in the studio, might be usually set near Maximum Sync Speed, fast to underexpose and keep out any studio ambient, so it does not affect the lighting ratio. And a low ISO and a little higher f/number too, same reason, if plenty of flash power is available.

• Guide Number is Not used for TTL flash because the TTL camera automation controls exposure and flash power level. TTL will necessarily have to use roughly the same flash power level that GN would compute, but we cannot control TTL that same way (TTL flash is controlled with Flash Compensation). Guide Number is a system for Manual flash mode, and note that Flash Compensation does not affect Manual flash power level. Manual is manual, it is however you have set it (Auto ISO can affect TTL mode exposure, but not any of the Manual settings. TTL automation can react, but manual flash mode cannot. See next item.)
• Auto ISO cannot be used with GN or Manual flash mode (Manual flash is required by Guide Number, but Manual flash cannot react to any ISO change). The camera should not allow Auto ISO changes if it can communicate with the hot shoe flash to know Manual flash is present.
• Guide Number is Not used for bounce flash, because that requires knowing the distance in the total path from flash to subject, and also the reflection loss at the ceiling or wall. Very roughly, common situation bounce can need at least 2 or 3 stops more power than direct flash. TTL flash has the advantages for bounce, TTL can meter this bounced result (but automation can be fooled, but Flash Compensation can correct TTL). Bounce flash is the good stuff for better camera mounted lighting, which does require more flash power and a bounce surface, but bounce is a more natural and pleasing lighting.
• Guide Number and Shutter Speed work differently for HSS flash. Shutter speed does affect HSS flash. HSS flash is a continuous light, like sunlight is continuous, at least for the full duration of the shutter speed. HSS does have Guide Numbers (the HSS GN chart is for one specified shutter speed), but HSS has very different concepts involving shutter speed and Equivalent Exposures. See third page for HSS GN calculator.
• If there is also significant ambient light present (for example if outdoors in bright sun), the light will add, causing serious overexposure of the calculated GN flash exposure. Fill flash is indeed extremely helpful, but in bright sun, the flash exposure must be reduced, usually to about -1 2/3 EV to -2 EV to be fill flash level (and -1 2/3 EV has been popular too). Cameras today have a "Balanced TTL" fill flash mode that does this TTL flash compensation automatically (but it becomes our job for Manual or not-balanced straight TTL flash). For fill in sunlight with straight not-balanced TTL flash, add about -2 EV Flash Compensation to determine a reasonable fill level. For fill with Manual flash mode, reduce flash power about 2 stops (to 1/4x, for example from 1/2 power to 1/8 power). Adjust as necessary, but -2 EV will be pretty close.
• At Macro distances, the f/stop Number becomes numerically and significantly increased, different than marked, which is very important to flash and guide number. Guide Number will not be accurate for macro photos. Macro work typically uses Magnification (of subject and frame) instead of distance. See Macro on next page.

Using a handheld flash meter (incident, metered at the subject) will be much more practical and desirable for umbrellas or softboxes, certainly in a studio setting involving multiple flashes. These lighting modifiers affect GN value greatly, and even then, the Inverse Square Law (light path distance) for umbrella or softbox distance would have to be measured from the actual flash tube. Much easier to simply meter the light at the subject. The flash meter makes great studio setup be very fast, easy and repeatable, especially so for adjusting each of multiple lights for lighting ratio.

The Guide Number method can be very accurate for direct flash, and one big plus is that it is not affected by variations of reflected subject colors that fool reflected light meters.

### However, Possible Causes of Error with GN are:

• Vague guesses for flash distance. That's usually necessary, but is not best accuracy. Do check the shot to readjust and retry while you can, if necessary. That's true of TTL too, but both GN and TTL are still close and good starting points. Accurate distance with accurate GN should be very accurate exposure. Maybe best to measure the actual distance before you fuss about GN accuracy.
• Inaccurate Guide Number. I've always been very satisfied with Nikon guide numbers, but if any question, you can determine or verify an accurate guide number yourself by knowing what works for your flash. See just below.
Marketing chooses one zoom setting for a published guide number. In the past, it was standardized at 35 mm zoom, typical use indoors with 35 mm film. Today, Chinese flashes often specify the maximum zoom setting (the biggest GN, but not typically used with flash). But each flash head zoom has its own guide number, which is shown in the guide number chart in the flashes user manual. Here, you must specify the GN for the zoom you are actually using.
• Speedlight zoom or studio light reflector angular coverage does not match Guide Number used (which is inaccurate GN again). And most studio modifiers (softboxes, umbrellas, etc) are a whole different thing, where measuring distance from the fabric cannot be correct (measure path from the bulb source). And many/most speedlight flash heads zoom with lens focal length now, and things do change then. My text editor counts that the word zoom appears 82 times on this page, so flash head zoom is very important. When using Guide Number, do pay close attention to zoom and ISO settings.
• The flash manufacturer likely carefully measured published guide numbers in a very wide open and dark space, eliminating ambient and reflection from close walls or objects. Bright ambient or reflections in a small room might increase the light level a bit.
• Guide Number and Inverse Square Law are simply physics and math, but we also depend on the flash manufacturer's accuracy of setting each speedlight flash duration to be exactly a 2x power level. Speedlights ALWAYS internally trigger at full maximum power, and then implement any lower power setting by cutting that full flash off short, for the lower power. I expect they did very careful measurement tests to get that just right for each model, and I have much faith in the major manufacturers, but it possibly could be a variable.

Repeating again: If your flash specifies Guide Number for 24 mm zoom, but you are using it at 105 mm zoom, you absolutely need to know and use the 105 mm zoom Guide Number (see your flash manual for its complete Guide Number chart for various zoom settings).

## Determining Guide Number yourself

If unknown, you can always determine or verify the guide number yourself by using these suggestions (but there should be a Guide Number chart in your flash manual):

• Set flash to Manual Full power level.
• Set up a measured flash-to-subject distance. Maybe 12 feet or 4 meters, which choice then also determines the GN mode of feet or meters. Preferably in a large clear dim area with high ceiling, without side clutter that could add reflected light back onto the subject (the ceiling can also do that). Outdoors will work too.
• ISO 100 is standard for GN charts.
• Set the flash to the same zoom mm number that you will use (GN varies with flash head zoom, NOT with lens zoom).
• Speedlight mode GN does Not use shutter speed. HSS flash does, and for HSS GN, 1/500 second shutter speed is standard (see the HSS GN page).
• Experiment adjusting f/stop to find the correct exposure. If the exposure is too dark, open the aperture some (to a lower f/stop number) and try again (and vice versa). Precise correct exposure is not easy to recognize, and can be affected by the scene, so maybe repeat this test in a couple of different situations.
• Avoid any bright ambient that could affect exposure for this test. A simple test of ambient level is to take the same picture at same settings and ambient, but with flash turned off. That picture should be very near fully black, meaning ambient is no factor of that exposure. Normal indoor lighting should be no issue, but you might turn some of it off.
• These specific factors all affect GN number. Other choices can be used, but the GN found will be for the specific choices used here (full power, ISO 100, flash zoom setting, clear dim surroundings).

Then for that correct exposure, Guide Number is (fstop number * distance) that gives the correct exposure. If the aperture for correct exposure is f/8 at 12 feet, then GN = f/8 × 12 ft = GN 96 (feet).

## Calculator Use Example

Ordinary guide number calculators just do a simple division, modes A and B above, independently. That's very important and useful, and it's been that way for decades, but there's a lot more here now. For example, using the initial defaults of GN 98, ISO 100, full power, f/7.1 and 8 feet for choice C tells us full power of this GN 98 flash is +1.56 EV too high, but nearest third power setting of -1.67 EV will be correct exposure within 0.1 EV. Then the Change Power button will change that for verification.

Hopefully use will be fairly obvious. We can just try settings that seem right and sensible. The calculator will guide you about how much change is needed for a correct exposure of the goal. The A or B method is to simply use the distance or aperture as indicated at the A or B results, which will be correct exposure, but that changes the C goal, possibly drastically. Instead changing Power or ISO retains the A & B goal. The calculator suggests a power level first, and then may subsequently offer an ISO Adjust (to more reasonable numbers), but there are four choices that calculate change. Or you can always directly change any settings you want, and it will check the result. The suggestion for awkward cases showing tough numbers is, try changing the numbers towards what seems reasonable.

Modern cameras are surely set to use third stops, which clearly allow the most precise exposure choice. But you might be using an old camera or lens or flash that is limited to full or half stops, those can also be selected here too. If you select third stops, those results will find the nearest third. Minor, but using third stop aperture could still deviate up to ± 1/6 EV (0.167 EV) from calculated precise value (which is shown). And if you do mix half and third stop settings, it will compute, but you'll get a warning that it conflicts with the step mode selected (because cameras set to do thirds will not do half stops). But it is possible to have a modern camera doing thirds and an old flash with only full or half stops. It will still compute accurate numbers if mixed is how you really will work.

If visible, the Change buttons in C are suggested possible exposure solutions, but each button only changes its one property, which may or may not have enough range alone. The settings have wide maximum range, but do have limits. This calculator will limit out at maximum or minimum flash power, or at extremes of ISO or aperture in the list boxes, just meaning another second change may also be needed. At actual limits, it still computes and advises about needed EV, but cannot adjust past these limits (you then need to change something else).

For example, we could have instead first clicked the Change ISO button (from the same previous initial settings), to get ISO 32 at the initial Full power, and a correct exposure. Then an optional Adjust button appears that will shift us back towards ISO 100, at -1.67 EV power at ISO 100 again (if desired, often more reasonable). It may not always reach ISO 100 due to other limits, like power. You can do all of these actions yourself directly, the buttons just do the calculations.

A big part of the calculator purpose is about better understanding exposure and guide numbers.

## Understanding Guide Numbers

Guide Number (GN) is a primary fundamental, related to Inverse Square Law, and is about how light works, which will always be important to know. Even if you only use TTL flash, you need to know that the light fall off means a direct flash exposure can be correct at only one specific distance from the flash. Anything closer is brighter, and anything farther is darker. But how much it changes works on sort of an exaggerated percentage basis (inverse square law), and a greater distance simply has more middle ground range. Bounce flash can seem to extend this range, but direct flash exposure falls off with the square of the distance. Flash will be two stops underexposed at twice the distance, or two stops overexposed at half the distance (inverse square law). So the general rule for flash is to keep all of your subject parts near the same distance plane from the lights (same idea as focus depth of field).

This following diversion about photographing groups of people relates to the distance range depth extents of the flash exposure. If you meter the flash, you can meter at the range extents too (you certainly ought to plan and know the exposure difference at front and rear of a big group). If direct flash, you can use the calculator here. Or if computing guide number, simply computing distance at ± 1/3 stop apertures computes the range extents for that tolerance (But Note: ± 1/3 stop is 2/3 stop from front to rear). Exposure range is not exactly about power or aperture, but is about the flash distance (inverse square law), so as to distance, the range distance is applicable to TTL too.

When photographing groups, the same distance plane is impossible for multiple rows of a group, and multiple rows can be a deep zone for an even flash illumination, and for focus depth of field too. For long rows, curving the ends forward to equalize the distance helps. For large groups of two or three rows deep, raising camera and flash height dramatically (maybe with a step ladder) to look down into the group can minimize difference of row distances (and won't hide faces of rows in back). Greater flash distance can extend the range of acceptable flash exposure. We normally think umbrellas ought to be "close as possible" for softness, but when back 15 feet, the size of umbrellas doesn't add much benefit (will cost power, and can't be very soft from there anyway). Increasing the flash distance for greater flash exposure range, and stopping the lens down for greater depth of field, both significantly increase the flash power needed.

Lighting: For a group of one single row, the lights can be placed near each row end, aimed in toward center (which adds and equalizes at center). But this can cause severe problems with shadows on multiple rows, with front rows blocking the light from rear row faces (because the camera sees a very different view than the lights see). Each rear row can stand on elevated steps so their faces are clear, higher above the shadow area.

Other notions for best group lighting for multiple rows is that multiple flashes ought to all be above the camera, pointing outward towards both ends, to cover the group evenly. The advantage then is the lights (at the camera) light the same view as the lens sees, without creating terrible unexpected visible shadows. Two flashes aimed different directions are individual units, NOT combining the same as multiple flashes ganged acting as one. Except be careful about any central overlap being too bright. It would be good to meter the lights at ends and the center, to verify all group areas are equal. Such work can be done before the group arrives, if you know what to expect. For large groups, see Google.

Guide number makes exposure computation very easy. Guide number is the oldest system to determine flash exposure (used for flash bulbs, before automation), but guide number only applies to direct flash. But guide number still is fundamental today, and understanding guide numbers can increase understanding of flash and inverse square law, whether you actually use guide numbers or not. We should all spend a little time playing with this, to understand the concept. It is a genuine basic of flash photography, which simplifies the Inverse Square Law (which is a really huge factor for flash).

Cropped sensors: Guide Number is about f/stop and distance, but Not about Crop Factor. The sensor may be more narrow, but the flash field of view required depends on the lens and what it sees. On the cropped sensor camera, if flash power is an issue, maybe for still adequate cropped area coverage with a little more concentrated power, then you might zoom the flash head a bit more than the lens focal length, up to the Equivalent Focal Length (which is crop factor times actual focal length of the lens). TTL or a flash meter works well then, or you could use the GN Chart for that new zoom value. If your frame corners go dark, that's too much flash zoom. But today, a few newer dedicated speedlights (same brand as camera, at least for Nikon) have both full frame and cropped modes, which can handle this automatically. These flash user manuals should have both GN Charts, for the two sensor types (cropped mode will zoom the flash head a bit more than the camera lens zoom, with still adequate coverage for the smaller sensor).

Shutter speed is Not a factor of flash exposure (except for HSS flash, but see flash basics Part 2 for regular speedlight flash mode). Flash power, f/stop, ISO and flash distance are the factors of flash exposure. Distance does not affect the direct sunlight (here on Earth, the Sun is always at the same distance from Earth), but distance is pretty tricky for flash. Direct flash exposure falls off with the Inverse Square Law (with distance), a serious complication for determining exposure. If we don't actually meter the flash, then guide numbers can solve distance computation easily (for direct flash). Guide numbers have been calculated forever, at least since first commercial flash bulb about 1930. Guide number was the only system before light meters and electronic automation.

Guide Number makes Inverse Square Law math easy (ISL). But there is a very handy guide about ISL falloff. It works the same for feet or meters (whatever units we are using, so long as GN units and distance units are the same units.) I'm using 8 feet for the example.

Suppose the flash subject is correctly exposed, and is at 8 feet from the direct flash. Because f/8 is numerically a standard f/stop number, then we can be certain that background objects at 11 feet will be underexposed 1 stop, and objects at 16 feet will be underexposed 2 stops. Foreground objects at 5.6 feet will be one stop overexposed, and objects at 4 feet will be 2 stops overexposed. You will recognize those example distance numbers (4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16) as being f/stop numbers. We know f/stops are certainly NOT related to distance, but coincidentally (simply because both definitions of numbers use squares), numerically this aperture scale we have already memorized provides a great quickie guide to estimate this light falloff. Numbers like 6.3 or 7.1 or 9 are third stops, which work too. Every flash photographer should be aware of this, it is an incredibly important basic for falloff of any direct light (table lamps too, but as mentioned, sunlight does not fall off with distance here on Earth). 2x distance is 2 EV loss due to ISL, and 2x aperture Number is also 2 EV loss, so these unrelated things can relate that way. Either number at 1.41x is one EV loss, and either at 0.7x is one EV gain.

Guide Number simply makes this Inverse Square Law very simple to compute.

So that's good to know to know, but guide number tells a lot more. If we know guide number is GN 80 (feet), then we know that 8 feet will need to use GN 80 / 8 feet = f/10 exposure. Or 10 feet will use f/8. That is certainly a lot to know (again, this is for unmodified direct flash).

If you meter your flash, either via TTL flash automation, or by using a handheld flash meter, or if you just use the camera's rear LCD and histogram to tweak in your manual flash exposure, then maybe you can get by for awhile without knowing about Guide Number, but Guide Number certainly does help basic understanding, essential fundamentals of flash that we should know (how direct flash falls off with distance).

## Definition of Guide Number

Guide Number is a tool to determine exposure of direct flash with manual flash power levels, to automatically deal with the Inverse Square Law, making the math be trivial.

Guide Number = Distance × fstop (values known to give a proper exposure)

f/stop = Guide Number / Distance (aperture for other distances)

Distance = Guide Number / fstop (distances for other apertures)

For any given "correct flash exposure" situation, guide number is simply numerically equal to the aperture number (like the number 8 in f/8) multiplied by the subject distance (like 10 feet). Then for example, the guide number is f/8 × 10 feet = GN 80 (feet units). Specifically, that aperture and distance combination which gives the correct exposure, defines the guide number.

We know that multiplying distance by √2 reduces light by 1 EV due to Inverse Square Law.
We know that multiplying a f/stop number by √2 reduces exposure by 1 EV.
And that doubling either distance or f/stop number reduces flash exposure by 2 EV.
Both Distance and f/stop numbering involve full stop steps of √2.

The product of Guide Number = Distance × fstop is a situation which if known to be correct exposure, then from the same Guide Number, any other distance or f/stop combinations can be calculated for correct exposure too. The great beauty is that this Guide Number system automatically and conveniently takes the Inverse Square Law into account for computing exposure of direct light from either flash or continuous light.

The Distance is from flash to subject. The flash might be on the camera, but the camera position is Not a factor. It is about the flash distance.

The useful part is that this guide number is a constant for that flash situation, good also for other distances or other apertures. If we know GN for the situation (same flash power level and ISO), we can know correct direct flash exposure for any distance or any aperture (those that multiply to same GN). This constant GN is initially determined by some trial situation seen to give correct exposure. Or we can use the manufacturers chart of guide number (trial is what they did).

If for example, in any situation at all, if f/8 is seen to give the correct exposure at 10 feet (from the flash), then this defines that the guide number for this situation is determined to be 80 (feet, from f8x10 feet). Whatever situation gives a correct exposure, that determines the actual guide number, by definition.

The overwhelming advantage of knowing this guide number constant is that if we then move the light to be 5 feet from subject, then GN 80 tells us that GN 80 / 5 feet = f/16 will give us correct exposure there too. Or if we open the aperture to f/4, then the correct distance for this flash power will be GN 80 / f4 = 20 feet. This guide number 80 is a constant (in this same flash power and zoom situation), for any distance and any aperture, and its purpose is to make the inverse square law be trivial to compute.

Said again- From knowing this guide number constant (GN = aperture × distance) for one flash situation (power and spread angle), we can recompute any other aperture/distance combination for correct exposure, which automatically takes the inverse square law into account, involving only the simplest division. For example, if we know the guide number is 80 (feet), then we immediately know that all of these combinations give the same correct flash exposure:

If we know the correct exposure, then we know GN:

f/8 at 10 feet = GN 80
f/10 at 8 feet = GN 80
f/4 at 20 feet = GN 80
f/20 at 4 feet = GN 80
f/16 at 5 feet = GN 80
f/6.3 at 12.7 feet = GN 80

Or, if the guide number is 80, then we know correct exposure:

GN 80 / 10 feet = f/8
GN 80 / 8 feet = f/10
GN 80 / 20 feet = f/4
GN 80 / 4 feet = f/20
GN 80 / 5 feet = f/16
GN 80 / 12.7 feet = f/6.3

You get the idea — any combination computing (f/number × distance) = GN 80 (in this example) also gives the same correct manual flash exposure (due to Inverse Square Law). The main use is, if our subject is at 14 feet (from the flash), then we know GN 80 / 14 feet = f/5.7. This is a lot to know by simple division, and it really could not be any easier.

This works (and is conveniently used) because Guide Number definition is (distance × f/stop), therefore doubling GN doubles distance range (4x the light), OR doubles actual f/stop Number (1/4 the light), which is two stops either way. Actually for any number N, any GN gives same exposure at (N × distance) if using (fstop number / N). The N cancels for GN. This is true because of the coincidence that distance observes the inverse square law, and the area of f/stop number observes the square of the radius.

Where do we get this guide number? There is normally a guide number chart in the speedlight flash manuals (for each zoom setting). Or in the camera manual specifications for the internal flash. Then we only need to know the distance between flash and subject to know proper aperture for manual flash exposure. Or, we can also determine or verify it ourself, since whatever aperture and distance that gives an actually correct exposure can compute guide number. This guide number is for Manual Direct flash, and this guide number will change as you zoom the flash head.

Guide number is all we had in the old flash bulb days (and it still works), and before flash units zoomed, they always had a little calculator on them to do this guide number division, but TTL flash mode has made guide numbers less used today. The top few Nikon flashes have a GN Mode, which is a GN calculator (sets flash power level to the aperture and distance). But we can often do the rough math in our heads (if distance is about 10 feet, then GN / 10 = aperture), which often gives a close starting point for proper flash exposure.

The published guide numbers (specs, charts, etc) are for unmodified direct flash and for the specified flash head zoom level. As the speedlight zooms in (longer mm to follow the lens zoom), the reflector concentrates the flash power into a smaller angle that becomes brighter, to cover the same appropriate view that the zoomed lens sees. There will be a different guide number for every zoom setting, and for every power level. Any other reflector situation or lighting modifier (diffusion dome, reflector, bounce, umbrella, whatever) is a different guide number. Any other path than direct flash is a different subject (like bounce involving longer path and bounce reflection losses, etc).

Guide number makes Inverse Square Law math be easy. The reason this product (of Distance × f/stop) works as a constant for exposure is due to the coincidence that each stop of f/stop numbers increase by the square root of two ( = 1.414) to give half intensity, and the Inverse Square Law distance decreases by the square root of two to give double intensity, and these square factors of 2 offset and cancel in the math, so that the simple product (aperture × distance) is a CONSTANT for correct exposure for this given direct flash situation (ISO, zoom, power level), for any aperture or any distance. It is enough to know that the big deal is that the Guide Number automatically accounts for the Inverse Square Law, making its math be almost trivial for us. This is a big deal, but it is only applicable to bare direct flash.

### Zoom

Zooming the flash head changes the guide number. Zooming in, to follow the lens zoom (a more narrow coverage angle), concentrates the flash power into a more narrow brighter beam with a higher guide number. There will be a guide number chart in the flash manual, specifying a different guide number for various zoom values. See a sample guide number chart just below.

If the speedlight does not zoom, then that's all it can do, so you can only use and compare that. Flashes that do not zoom (like the camera's internal flash) will have one guide number value. The Nikon D3200 internal flash specification shows it this way (syntax is meters/feet):

Guide Number: Approx. 12/39, 13/43 with manual flash (m/ft, ISO 100, 20 °C/68 °F)

For manual flash, this says GN is 13 / 43 (meters / feet). This is at full manual power, but a menu turns the flash power down as necessary, which lowers the guide number. The addition of temperature puzzles me, perhaps that's for the battery.

A little techie stuff about speedlight zoom, it may interest some:

My one regret about the GN calculator is that it doesn't also compute exposure for zoom mm changes. Increasing the flash zoom mm number concentrates the power into a brighter smaller beam. Since GN = distance × f/stop, which is all √2 stuff, so doubling either factor doubles GN, which is 2 EV. You'd think the GN calculator could calculate for zoom too, but the flash zoom system does not actually refocus. Optically doubling focal length is 1/4 the lens field area for which an exact optical flash zoom would calculate 2 EV, however the factory GN charts barely change about 1 EV for doubling zoom. Which does provide much less critical aiming, and the flash must provide considerable greater overlap to ensure aiming it into the same lens area. The optical situation in the flash head is complex, and speedlight zoom does move the curved reflector back and forth, but does not refocus its curve. Also the front Fresnel lens is molded plastic, which does not refocus with zoom. Most of the flash range is not focused, and each reflector design may vary individually too, so speedlights will vary in that zoom respect. Anyway, the guide number chart in the flash user manual shows the manufacturers careful testing of the actual zoom GN results. I advise using it.

The GN chart accuracy is OK and good, because the manufacturer's chart was prepared by accurately metering each actual zoom result, but we do have to rely on the GN chart for zoom. GN definitely does depend on whatever flash head zoom is in effect.

## Using the GN chart in your flash manual to determine GN

The GN chart is in the flash manuals, because if it has zoom, it will have many guide numbers (one for each zoom and power level combination). The charts usually show GN as both meter and feet values (specified as meters/feet). There are 3.28 ft in 1 m, so the GN conversion is: GN in feet = GN in meters × 3.28, or GN in meters = GN in feet / 3.28. Use either feet or meters, or any other units, so long as you are consistent with units (compute equivalent GN, and use same units everywhere for both guide number and for distances).

For example, this GN chart is from the Nikon SB-800 flash manual for regular speedlight mode (page 42 PDF manual). It is a full frame rated GN chart. Your flashes manual should also have the cropped frame chart for it. The chart entries are meters/feet, as specified. Feet GN is 3.28 × meters GN, so there is some rounding.

Nikon SB-800

Example: Suppose we plan to use direct flash at f/8 at 12 feet at ISO 400 (this procedure is NOT difficult).

The charts are always for ISO 100, but we know the ISO 400 factor is x2. We seek a ISO 400 GN in this example, so to go the other way, we divide the ISO 400 value by this 2x to get the ISO 100 value (to be able to compare in the ISO 100 chart). Next page has more detail about converting GN for ISO.

• We know this case needs flash power of (f8 × 12 feet) = GN 96 (feet) at the ISO 400 we plan to use.
• The Guide Number chart is for ISO 100. So converting this example (f/8 at 12 feet, GN 96 at ISO 400) to ISO 100 is GN 96/2 is GN 48 (feet, ISO 100). Converting GN for ISO is covered below.
• Now we can search the guide number chart in the ISO 100 speedlight chart, and maybe we find this GN 48 value at 24 mm zoom and 1/4 flash power to be GN 49 feet (some close example values are marked in GN chart below). More than close enough to GN 48.
• The point is that same ISO 100 GN 49 chart value also applies to GN 96 at ISO 400. This SB-800 GN chart (for an example) says that 24 mm flash head zoom and 1/4 flash power is GN 49, almost exactly the GN 48 that we seek as an ISO 100 value.
• Measure the distance as 12 feet, set the settings (flash 24 mm zoom and manual 1/4 power, camera ISO 400 and f/8), press the shutter button, and Presto, you've got it. You're very close on first try for a 12 foot flash distance (direct flash). f/8 × 12 feet = GN 96, even at ISO 400.

Or, if 24 mm is not best in your situation, of course don't choose that one. The chart includes a few other combinations of power level and zoom which are near GN 48. In some cases, you may have to modify your ISO goal, distance, or aperture. The GN need not be precisely exact, It's not linear but a 12% difference in GN is about 1/3 EV (and 41.4% difference is one EV). We don't necessarily have to match flash zoom to lens zoom values, we can use any wider (shorter) flash zoom — which may waste a little light if the flash is wider than the lens, which is no problem if not at maximum power (some flashes do not zoom anyway). Full frame flash on 1.5x cropped camera is already 1.5x wider anyway, so a cropped sensor allows a full frame flash to zoom in a bit tighter than the lens.

Say you really wanted to use 35 mm zoom instead of 24 mm. You can simply select any nearby zoom and power cell near 48 there (say 35 mm, GN 44 at 1/8 power, feet, that's close). Multiply it back to ISO 400 (44 * 2 = GN 88), and then compute a similar distance and aperture for that GN value (GN 88/12 feet = f/7.3) at ISO 400, 35 mm and 1/8 power. That is comparable to 12 feet at f/8. All that is left is to measure off the 12 feet. There is some situation that will work, and it will work (if using your own chart).

Or the GN calculator above works too: Choose any zoom in your GN chart, and enter its full power GN (GN 125 here, feet, for this 35 mm case) at ISO 100. Enter the new ISO 400 you want to use, and for this example, enter f/8 and 12 feet. Click Compute, and it will advise setting -2 2/3 stop power (1/3 higher than 1/8 power). Do that and click Compute again, and it verifies it is within 0.09 stop. And results should be pretty close.

Or if your flash has it, use the GN Mode on next page, and set ISO 400 and f/8 on the camera, and 12 feet in the GN menu. It will set the power for 12 feet, and it will work too (feet or meters, whichever you have the flash set to use).

So GN use can be even easier... Flashes compatible with the camera (communication) often know f/stop, ISO and zoom from the hot shoe. Nothing is metered here, but in direct flash Manual mode, they can use their guide number to show the distance calculation (appropriate for the current power level, ISO, aperture and zoom) on their LCD (as shown typically next). This can be a fine starting point (again, direct flash only). Can be very helpful.

Manual mode Nikon SB-800
Chart GN 49 for ISO 100 1/4 power

Manual mode Yongnuo YN565EX
Chart GN 46 for ISO 100 1/4 power

Guide Number continued on next page, including:

Calculator to compare power with GN of two flashes
Calculator for GN of multiple speedlights Ganged as One (equal and unequal flashes)
Converting Guide Number for New ISO or a New Power Level
Guide Number accuracy
Nikon GN flash mode
Macro and Bounce flash

HSS Guide Number calculator is on third page.